Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; reef-associated; depth range 5 - 40 m (Ref. 90102), usually ? - 20 m (Ref. 27115). Tropical; 22°C - 26°C (Ref. 27115); 30°N - 18°S
Indo-Pacific: Red Sea to the western Pacific, north to the Ryukyu Islands, south to Rowley Shoals; Palau, Guam and Marshall Islands in Micronesia.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 4.5 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 48637)
Morphology | Morphometrics
soft rays: 9;
Vertebrae: 26. Characterized by overall dark brown color; presence of distinctive white zone dorsally on head from snout to origin of dorsal fin; white spot at second dorsal fin origin; first dorsal fin with black spot; basal part of pectoral fin with white spot; dark brown spots on pectoral and caudal fins; united pelvic fins, frenum present; longitudinal scale series 44-50; head without scales; absence of predorsal scales; greatest depth of body 5.0-6.0 in SL; rounded caudal fin, longer than head length (Ref. 90102).
Lives in areas with patches of fine carbonate sand on subtidal reef flats and seaward reefs. Uses the burrow of Alpheus rubromaculatus for refuge. Constantly waves its large, spotted, fan-like pectoral fins as it hovers close above the entrance to its burrow (Ref. 1602). Lives in coastal to outer reef habitats in shallow depth to about 10 meters, commonly found on sand and rubble patches close or shaded by low overhanging corals (Ref. 48637).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Myers, R.F., 1991. Micronesian reef fishes. Second Ed. Coral Graphics, Barrigada, Guam. 298 p. (Ref. 1602)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Threat to humans
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 25.3 - 29.1, mean 28.1 °C (based on 488 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.7500 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00617 (0.00277 - 0.01371), b=3.08 (2.90 - 3.26), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.2 ±0.3 se; based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (11 of 100) .