Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; brackish; reef-associated; depth range 3 - 30 m (Ref. 90102). Tropical; 37°N - 33°S, 32°E - 168°E
Indo-West Pacific: Red Sea and East Africa (including the south coast of South Africa, Ref. 4919) to Indonesia, north to southern Japan.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 37.5 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 116289); max. published weight: 775.00 g (Ref. 116289)
Inhabits weedy areas, often in estuaries; seagrass beds (Ref. 41878) and mangrove areas in 1-1.5 m. Solitary (Ref. 90102). Specimens caught by trawling over silty bottoms in 17 m. (Ref. 9137).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Randall, J.E., 1985. On the validity of the tetraodontid fish Arothron manilensis (Procé). Jap. J. Ichthyol. 32(3):347-354. (Ref. 5170)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 118484)
Threat to humans
Poisonous to eat (Ref. 393)
Fisheries: minor commercial; aquarium: public aquariums
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 24.3 - 29.3, mean 28.5 °C (based on 3402 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.03020 (0.01914 - 0.04764), b=2.84 (2.71 - 2.97), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species & (Sub)family-body (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 2.5 ±0.20 se; based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low to moderate vulnerability (26 of 100) .