Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; demersal; depth range - m (Ref. ), usually - m (Ref. ). Polar; 0°C - ; 57°S - 67°S
Southern Ocean: along the Atlantic coasts of the Antarctic Peninsula, South Shetland, South Orkney and South Sandwich islands.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 9.5 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 5191); max. reported age: 9 years (Ref. 5191)
Depth range: 0-5 m on rocky bottoms. Usually under rocks; rarely under algal fronds. A specialized feeder on amphipods, mainly Gondogeneia antarctica. Feed on small crustaceans and common in littoral of all sub-Antarctic islands (Ref. 42041). Iteroparous and devotes a lot of time to parental care (Ref. 5191). Larval pelagic phase is long (Ref. 71843).
Hureau, J.-C., 1990. Harpagiferidae. p. 357-363. In O. Gon and P.C. Heemstra (eds.) Fishes of the Southern Ocean. J.L.B. Smith Institute of Ichthyology, Grahamstown, South Africa. 462 p. (Ref. 5191)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 124695)
Threat to humans
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5010 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00468 (0.00179 - 0.01223), b=3.15 (2.92 - 3.38), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.3 ±0.53 se; based on food items.
Generation time: 4.4 ( na - na) years. Estimated as median ln(3)/K based on 1 growth studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Fec = 400).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate vulnerability (36 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 62.7 [28.6, 140.8] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.392 [0.207, 0.778] mg/100g ; Protein = 17.2 [16.1, 18.2] % ; Omega3 = 0.289 [0.137, 0.594] g/100g ; Selenium = 14 [5, 32] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 32.3 [7.1, 138.2] μg/100g ; Zinc = 0.759 [0.462, 1.246] mg/100g (wet weight);