Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Perciformes/Notothenioidei
() > Nototheniidae
(Cod icefishes) > Trematominae
Etymology: Trematomus: Greek, trematos = hole + Greek, tomo = section, cut (Ref. 45335); newnesi: newnesi named after Sir George Newnes, British newspaper publisher who sponsored Borchgrevinck's Expedition of 1899 (Ref. 11892). More on author: Boulenger.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; demersal; depth range 0 - 400 m (Ref. 11892). Polar; 60°S - 78°S
Southern Ocean: East Antarctic, Weddell Sea, West coast of Antarctic Peninsula, South Shetland Islands, Elephant Island, South Orkney Islands, Mac Robertson, George V, Queen Mary, Adelie Coasts, Davis Sea and Ross Sea.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 20.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 5179)
Found in shallow near shore areas and more commonly in the intertidal zone. Adults feed mainly on amphipods, polychaetes, gastropods, isopods, copepods, and euphausiids (E. superba). Often seen feeding in the water column or at the undersurface of ice.
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Dewitt, H.H., P.C. Heemstra and O. Gon, 1990. Nototheniidae. p. 279-331. In O. Gon and P.C. Heemstra (eds.) Fishes of the Southern Ocean. J.L.B. Smith Institute of Ichthyology, Grahamstown, South Africa. (Ref. 5179)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: of no interest
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): -1.8 - -0.4, mean -1.4 °C (based on 237 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5005 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00661 (0.00312 - 0.01398), b=3.17 (2.99 - 3.35), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.2 ±0.2 se; based on diet studies.
Generation time: 3.1 ( na - na) years. Estimated as median ln(3)/K based on 1 growth studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Fec = 2,300-12,200).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low to moderate vulnerability (30 of 100) .