Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Perciformes/Notothenioidei
() > Nototheniidae
(Cod icefishes) > Trematominae
Etymology: Trematomus: Greek, trematos = hole + Greek, tomo = section, cut (Ref. 45335); bernacchii: Species name bernacchii honors Louis Bernarcchi, an Australian physicist-meteorologist; specimen collected on the Southern Cross Expedition and served on Scott's 1901 expedition (Ref. 45168). More on author: Boulenger.
The genus Pseudotrematomus is a synonym of Trematomus, which is confirmed by a molecular study to be published (J.-C. Hureau, pers. comm. 08 Jun. 2010).
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; demersal; depth range 0 - 700 m (Ref. 11892), usually 0 - 200 m (Ref. 45168). Polar; 61°S - 78°S
Southern Ocean: Peter Island, South Shetland, Elephant and South Orkney islands. Mac-Robertson, Queen Mary, Adelie Coasts, Weddell, Davis and Ross seas. East Antarctica from Queen Maud Land to Terre Adelie.
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?, range 18 - ? cm
Max length : 28.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 5179); 35.0 cm TL (female); common length : 25.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 2121); max. reported age: 10 years (Ref. 5179)
Found in seafloors, well adapted to extremely low and stable temperatures (-1.86°C, annual mean temperature of McMurdo Sound) (Ref. 45168). Feed on polychaetes, gastropods, isopods, amphipods and few algae. Spawn once a year (Ref. 1071). Utilized for human consumption.
Dewitt, H.H., P.C. Heemstra and O. Gon, 1990. Nototheniidae. p. 279-331. In O. Gon and P.C. Heemstra (eds.) Fishes of the Southern Ocean. J.L.B. Smith Institute of Ichthyology, Grahamstown, South Africa. (Ref. 5179)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Threat to humans
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): -1.8 - -0.8, mean -1.7 °C (based on 2076 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5005 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00759 (0.00316 - 0.01821), b=3.15 (2.94 - 3.36), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.4 ±0.1 se; based on diet studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (K=0.19-0.91; tm=3-6; tmax=10; Fec=1,200-3,123).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): High vulnerability (64 of 100) .