Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; demersal; oceanodromous (Ref. 51243); depth range 20 - 150 m (Ref. 9988). Temperate; 72°N - 43°N, 25°W - 45°E (Ref. 54565)
Northeast Atlantic: Bay of Biscay to Iceland and Norway; Barents and White seas; also Baltic Sea.
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm 21.4, range 11 - 25 cm
Max length : 40.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 4705); max. published weight: 1.0 kg (Ref. 35388); max. reported age: 12 years (Ref. 27407)
Adults live mainly on sandy bottoms, from a few meters to about 100 m. Feed mainly on crustaceans and small fishes. Batch spawner (Ref. 51846). Marketed fresh, dried or salted, smoked and frozen; eaten steamed, fried, broiled, boiled. microwaved and baked (Ref. 9988).
Cooper, J.A. and F. Chapleau, 1998. Monophyly and intrarelationships of the family Pleuronectidae (Pleuronectiformes), with a revised classification. Fish. Bull. 96(4):686-726. (Ref. 30193)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Threat to humans
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 6.9 - 11.8, mean 8.9 °C (based on 284 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5156 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00813 (0.00714 - 0.00925), b=3.07 (3.03 - 3.11), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.0 ±0.0 se; based on diet studies.
Generation time: 3.9 (2.8 - 4.4) years. Estimated as median ln(3)/K based on 21 growth studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (K=0.3-0.6; tm=2-3; tmax=12; Fec=50,000).
Prior r = 0.72, 95% CL = 0.48 - 1.09, Based on 2 stock assessments.
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate vulnerability (40 of 100) .