Elasmobranchii (sharks and rays) > Rhinopristiformes
(Shovelnose rays) > Trygonorrhinidae
(Banjo rays, Fiddler rays)
Etymology: Trygonorrhina: Greek, trygon = a sting ray + Greek, rhinos = nose (Ref. 45335).
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; demersal; depth range 5 - 205 m (Ref. 114953). Subtropical; 31°S - 41°S, 114°E - 148°E (Ref. 114953)
Countries | FAO areas | Ecosystems | Occurrences | Point map | Introductions | Faunafri
Eastern Indian Ocean: endemic to southern Australia.
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm 100.0  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 146 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 114953)
Morphology | Morphometrics
This large shovelnose ray is distinguished by the following characters: suboval disc, short and broadly rounded snout with nostrils partly covered with a large nasal curtain; ridges of small thorns present on mid-line of disc and shoulders; behind interorbital space is an ornate pattern of dark-edged bands without the distinct triangular or diamond-shaped marking (Ref. 114953).
A benthic species that occurs on continental shelf, mainly found on soft bottoms and seagrasses. Feeds on bottom crustaceans, worms, molluscs and small fishes. Produces litters of 2-5 pups. Maturity size of males at ca. 70 cm TL, females at 89 cm TL; birth size at 21-25 cm TL (Ref. 114953).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Last, P.R. and J.D. Stevens, 2009. Sharks and rays of Australia. CSIRO, Australia. 656 p. (Ref. 109431)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Threat to humans
CountriesFAO areasEcosystemsOccurrencesIntroductionsStocksEcologyDietFood itemsFood consumptionRation
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.6250 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00646 (0.00294 - 0.01416), b=2.98 (2.78 - 3.18), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species & (Sub)family-body (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.8 ±0.6 se; based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Generation time: 6.9 ( na - na) years. Estimated as median ln(3)/K based on 2 growth studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5 - 14 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): High vulnerability (65 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 34.5 [5.5, 120.6] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.834 [0.211, 2.136] mg/100g ; Protein = 19.1 [17.0, 21.0] % ; Omega3 = 0.241 [0.115, 0.498] g/100g ; Selenium = 33.2 [9.0, 92.0] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 5.83 [2.21, 15.39] μg/100g ; Zinc = 0.554 [0.271, 1.338] mg/100g (wet weight);