Elasmobranchii (sharks and rays) > Rhinopristiformes
(Shovelnose rays) > Rhinobatidae
Etymology: Rhinobatos: Greek, rhinos = nose + Greek, batis, -idos = a ray (Raja sp.) (Ref. 45335); whitei: Named for Dr. William White for his contributions to the taxonomic and biological knowledge of sharks and rays of the Western Central Pacific..
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; pelagic-neritic. Tropical; 13°N - 8°N, 120°E - 125°E (Ref. 114953)
Countries | FAO areas | Ecosystems | Occurrences | Point map | Introductions | Faunafri
Western Pacific: Philippines.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 72.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 97528); 84.4 cm TL (female)
Morphology | Morphometrics
This species is distinguished by the following set of adult characters: wedge-shaped disc with moderately concave anterior snout margin, width 31-35% TL, disc length 1.3-1.4 times width; snout length 3.0-3.4 times interspiracular distance, 3.9-5.2 times interorbital width; orbit medium-sized, 1.4-1.7 times spiracle length; notrils weakly oblique, length 1.3-1.6 times internarial distance; preoral length 6.8-7.8 times internarial distance; anterior nasal flaps which are penetrating slightly into internarial space but well separated at their insertion; posterior nasal flaps broad; spiracles large with two folds, outermost fold distinctly longer than inner fold; ridges of rostral cartilage almost parallel, converging slightly anteriorly but not constricted medially; anterior cartilage is subtriangular; distance between fifth gill slits 3.0-3.4 times in ventral head length; prebranchial sensory pore patch distinct, extending to just behind first gill slit; distinct postscapular sensory canal, with exposed lateral pores, grooved; thorn patches on supraorbit, nuchal and scapular regions, and dorsal midline rudimentary, non-conspicuous; in males, pelvic-fin inner margin longer than its base and in females subequal; interdorsal distance 2.6-3.2 times length of first dorsal-fin base; dorsal caudal margin 2.1-2.6 times preventral margin; upper jaw with ca. 65-92 tooth rows; post-synarcual centra, 173-179; nasal lamellae, 50-53; in adults dorsal surface brownish, covered with diffuse orange and dusky blotches, and indistinct pale spots; melanophores pronounced on dorsal surface, and dorsal fins largely pale anteriorly, darker posteriorly with a blackish blotch above the free rear tip when fresh (Ref. 97528).
Males mature at ca. 56 cm TL, females slightly larger. Unknown life history (Ref. 114953).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Last, P.R., S. Corrigan and G. Naylor, 2014. Rhinobatos whitei, a new shovelnose ray (Batoidea: Rhinobatidae) from the Philippine Archipelago. Zootaxa 3872(1):31-47. (Ref. 97528)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 125652)
Threat to humans
CountriesFAO areasEcosystemsOccurrencesIntroductionsStocksEcologyDietFood itemsFood consumptionRation
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82804
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00302 (0.00153 - 0.00597), b=3.13 (2.95 - 3.31), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.7 ±0.4 se; based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5 - 14 years (Preliminary low fecundity).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate to high vulnerability (54 of 100).