Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; reef-associated; depth range 12 - 25 m (Ref. 90102). Tropical
Indo-West Pacific: Bay of Bengal to Japan and Indonesia.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 26.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 42740)
soft rays: 16 - 17. Body with 3 longitudinal series of large whitish spot, the dark grey-brown interspace a coarse reticulum. A dark grey-brown band from nape to interopercle containing a black ring just above gill opening. A broad dark grey-brown bar below eye. On each side of abdomen with 3 black spots (Ref 42740).
Found solitary or in small groups (Ref. 90102) commonly on deep coastal slopes, from the shallow rocky shore to the deep soft bottom zones (Ref. 48636).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Masuda, H., K. Amaoka, C. Araga, T. Uyeno and T. Yoshino, 1984. The fishes of the Japanese Archipelago. Vol. 1. Tokai University Press, Tokyo, Japan. 437 p. (text). (Ref. 559)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Threat to humans
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 25.5 - 29.3, mean 28.7 °C (based on 2119 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00646 (0.00290 - 0.01435), b=3.10 (2.92 - 3.28), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.6 ±0.4 se; based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low to moderate vulnerability (27 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 76.3 [47.5, 139.7] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.637 [0.410, 0.978] mg/100g ; Protein = 18.3 [16.0, 20.3] % ; Omega3 = 0.106 [0.068, 0.165] g/100g ; Selenium = 36.9 [21.0, 65.5] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 69.4 [26.9, 170.9] μg/100g ; Zinc = 1.44 [1.02, 1.98] mg/100g (wet weight);