Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Kurtiformes
(Nurseryfishes, cardinalfishes.) > Apogonidae
(Cardinalfishes) > Apogoninae
Etymology: Cheilodipterus: Greek, cheilos = lip + Greek, di = two + Greek, pteryx = fin (Ref. 45335). More on author: Gmelin.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; reef-associated; depth range 3 - 25 m. Tropical; 30°N - 30°S
Western Indian Ocean: Red Sea, Tanzania, Mozambique, Seychelles, and India. Absence of the species elsewhere in the Indian Ocean, is probably due to inadequate sampling. Absence from the Gulf of Aqaba and Persian Gulf may be the result of competition with lachneri and persicus, respectively.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 18.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 9710); common length : 8.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 2935)
Color in life pale brown with 13-16 dark brown stripes. In large fish, dorsal stripes may be irregular. A small dark spot encircled by yellow area on caudal peduncle. Spot sometimes expanded to form a dark brown bar around caudal peduncle. Distinct snow white bar between dark caudal spot (or bar) and posterior ends of body stripes. First dorsal fin dusky to dark brown. Other fins pale (in young) to dusky (in adults), but never as dark as first dorsal fin. Snout somewhat darker than body (Ref 8525).
A common species found in small aggregations around corals (Ref. 9710).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Mouthbrooders (Ref. 240). Distinct pairing during courtship and spawning (Ref. 205).
Randall, J.E., 1995. Coastal fishes of Oman. University of Hawaii Press, Honolulu, Hawaii. 439 p. (Ref. 11441)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Threat to humans
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 25 - 29, mean 27.8 °C (based on 1053 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01072 (0.00493 - 0.02329), b=3.12 (2.94 - 3.30), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.5 ±0.50 se; based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (21 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 89.8 [58.1, 184.6] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.782 [0.501, 1.152] mg/100g ; Protein = 19.4 [18.5, 20.3] % ; Omega3 = 0.162 [0.113, 0.232] g/100g ; Selenium = 33.1 [19.4, 53.1] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 76.4 [30.5, 186.2] μg/100g ; Zinc = 1.48 [1.08, 1.99] mg/100g (wet weight);