Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; demersal; depth range 5 - 53 m (Ref. 9790). Tropical
Western Central Pacific: Gulf of Thailand and the Philippines to Papua New Guinea and northern Queensland, Australia.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 19.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 9790); common length : 15.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 9790)
soft rays: 12 - 14. Rear edge of maxilla ends below anterior nostril, well in front of eye. Preopercular spine single, long, bayonet-like, reaching to or past rear opercular margin, accessory spine lacking. Caudal fin emarginate, upper lobe longest, bearing an elongate filament. Dorsal and anal fin rays usually 13. Lateral line scales often about 94.
Taken by trawling over sand bottoms from about 5 to 53 m (Ref. 9790).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Paxton, J.R., D.F. Hoese, G.R. Allen and J.E. Hanley, 1989. Pisces. Petromyzontidae to Carangidae. Zoological Catalogue of Australia, Vol. 7. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra, 665 p. (Ref. 7300)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: minor commercial
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 24.6 - 29, mean 28 °C (based on 700 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 1.0000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00513 (0.00235 - 0.01120), b=3.05 (2.86 - 3.24), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 4.1 ±0.5 se; based on diet studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (22 of 100) .