Elasmobranchii (sharks and rays) > Squaliformes
(Sleeper and dogfish sharks) > Somniosidae
Etymology: Centroscymnus: Greek, kentron = sting + Greek, skymnos, -ou = pup, puppy (Ref. 45335).
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; bathydemersal; depth range 128 - 3700 m (Ref. 55584), usually 400 - 2000 m (Ref. 35388). Deep-water; 5°C - 13°C (Ref. 6871); 75°N - 61°S, 98°W - 147°W
Western Atlantic: Grand Banks to Delaware, USA; Cuba (Ref. 26340). Eastern Atlantic: Iceland south along Atlantic slope to the southwestern Cape coast of South Africa; also western Mediterranean. Western Pacific: off Japan, New Zealand, and Australia (Ref. 6871, 31367). Western Indian Ocean: Seychelles (Ref. 76802).
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm 101.2, range 95 - 110 cm
Max length : 120 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 6871); common length : 92.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 247)
soft rays: 0. Dorsal fins with very small spines, very short snout, lanceolate upper teeth and bladelike lower teeth with short, oblique cusps, stocky body that does not taper abruptly from pectoral region, very large lateral trunk denticles with smooth, circular, acuspidate crowns in adults and subadults (Ref. 247). Uniformly golden brown to dark brown in color (Ref. 6871).
Found on continental slopes and abyssal plains (Ref. 6871). Feeds mainly on fish (including sharks) and cephalopods (Ref. 6871), also gastropods and cetacean meat (Ref. 5578). Ovoviviparous (Ref. 205), with 13 to 29 young per litter, born at 27-31 cm (Ref. 26346); 32-35 cm TL in North Atlantic (Ref. 98315). Utilized as fishmeal, dried and salted for human consumption, or as a source of squalene (Ref. 6871).
Ovoviviparous (Ref. 6871), with 13 to 29 young per litter (Ref. 26346). Born at 27-31 cm (Ref. 26346). Distinct pairing with embrace (Ref. 205).
Compagno, L.J.V., 1984. FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 4. Sharks of the world. An annotated and illustrated catalogue of shark species known to date. Part 1 - Hexanchiformes to Lamniformes. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(4/1):1-249. Rome, FAO. (Ref. 247)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: minor commercial
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 0.8 - 10.3, mean 3.9 °C (based on 2755 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5313 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00589 (0.00276 - 0.01257), b=3.11 (2.92 - 3.30), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species & (Sub)family-body (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 4.5 ±0.1 se; based on diet studies.
Generation time: 156.9 ( na - na) years. Estimated as median ln(3)/K based on 1 growth studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Very Low, minimum population doubling time more than 14 years (Fec=13-29).
Prior r = 0.03, 95% CL = 0.01 - 0.07, Based on 1 stock assessment.
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Very high vulnerability (75 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 5.06 [0.94, 18.74] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.143 [0.033, 0.413] mg/100g ; Protein = 19.8 [16.8, 22.0] % ; Omega3 = 0.31 [0.11, 0.99] g/100g ; Selenium = 12.6 [3.1, 41.0] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 71.7 [11.5, 417.1] μg/100g ; Zinc = 0.256 [0.114, 0.582] mg/100g (wet weight); based on nutrient studies.