Classification / Names
Common names | Synonyms | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa
Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Perciformes/Cottoidei
() > Liparidae
Etymology: Paraliparis: Greek, para = the side of + Greek, liparis = fat (Ref. 45335); vipera: Name derived from Latin vipera for snake, for the head of this species is flattened, as in the snake (Ref. 87306). More on authors: Chernova & Prut'ko.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; bathydemersal, usually 1727 - ? m (Ref. 87306). Polar; 75°S - 76°S, 170°W - 171°W
Antarctica: Ross Sea.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 3.7 cm TL (female)
Morphology | Morphometrics
Diagnosis: head is flattened, and its width (84% of c) noticeably exceeds its depth (58%). Rad. pect. 3 (2 + 0 +1), vert. 70, vert. abd. 11; P 19, C 7. Teeth are uniserial, except the region of symphysis. Snout is 42% of c., and interorbital space is 33% of c. Gill opening is 18% of c and not longer than eye diameter. Preanal distance is 39% of SL. Lower lobe of pectoral fin is short, 10% of SL (Ref. 87306).
Description. Head is small, 6.3 times in SL and is noticeably flattened: head width (84% of c) considerably exceeds its depth (58%). Teeth on jaws are simple, small, cone shaped, and mainly uniserial. On the upper jaw, distally there is a row of 26 teeth, 5 short rows are added anteriorly. On the lower jaw, distally in a row there are approximately 70 teeth of even size; anteriorly there are 3–4 short rows. Lower jaw is of common appearance and not massive. Oral cleft reaches vertical of anterior margin of orbit. Respiratory membranes are wide: palatine and lower jaw membranes are 3 and 2 times wider than dental plates by a factor of three and two, respectively. Oral cavity lining is almost smooth; papillae on its surface are few. Orobuccal fold bears one fingerlike projection located on 1/6 of its length. Gill rakers 12; they are strongly conical and sharpened; spinules at their apices are hardly noticeable. Chin pores, judging from the location of their tubules, are closely set. Body is elongated and compressed from the sides. Preanal distance is 39% of SL (Ref. 87306).
X ray. Vert. 70 (11 + 59), D 61, A 56, C 7. It was impossible to determine the position of the first dorsal ray pterygiophore on the specimen. The first ray of A is under the seventh abdominal vertebra. Pterygiophore of the last dorsal fin ray is between processes of preural vertebrae 1 and 2; pterygiophore of the last dorsal fin ray is between processes of preural vertebrae 3 and 4 (Ref. 87306).
Pectoral girdle. Pectoral radials 3 (2 + 0 + 1); they are round and big; interradial fenestrae are absent. Scapula has a short, wide helve; coracoideum has a long helve, without lateral ribs. P 20 (15 + 2 + 3); rays of notch are not rudimentary. The length of notch rays is 30% of the upper lope length and length of lower lobe rays is 97%. Upper ray of pectoral fin is at the level of the lower third of the orbit; its lower ray is at the vertical of its anterior third. Anus opens under the gill opening. Pyloric caeca 6 (Ref. 87306).
Coloration. Skin on the head and body is lacking; its fragments on the abdomen are pinkish. Lips are blackish. Gill and oral cavities are smoky gray. Stomach is entirely light. Peritoneum is black (Ref. 87306).
A single specimen of P. vipera was found in the stomach of toothfish caught at the continental slope of the southeastern part of the Ross Sea at a depth of 1,727m (Ref. 87306).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Chernova, N.V. and V.G. Prut’ko, 2011. Two new species of Paraliparis(Scorpaeniformes: Liparidae) from the Ross Sea (Antarctica). J. Ichthyol. 51(5):363-372. (Ref. 87306)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Threat to humans
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00468 (0.00219 - 0.00998), b=3.17 (2.98 - 3.36), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.1 ±0.4 se; based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (10 of 100) .