Classification / Names
Common names | Synonyms | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa
Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Perciformes
(Perch-likes) > Mullidae
Etymology: Upeneus: Greek, ypene, -es = upper lip (Ref. 45335); indicus: Named for its type locality, Cochin, western India; noun in apposition.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; reef-associated. Tropical
Countries | FAO areas | Ecosystems | Occurrences | Point map | Introductions | Faunafri
Western Indian Ocean: known only from western India.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 14.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 83903)
Morphology | Morphometrics
(total): 9. This species is distinguished by the following characters: D VIII,9; pectoral fins 15-16; gill rakers 9 + 20-22 = 29-31; lateral line scales 36; body depth at first dorsal-fin origin 29-31% SL and at anal-fin origin 26-27% SL; caudal-peduncle depth 11% SL; maximum head depth 25% SL; head depth through eye 18-19% SL; head length 30-31%SL; orbit length 7.0-7.1% SL; upper jaw length 12% SL; barbel length 19-20% SL; caudal-fin length 27-28% SL; anal-fin height 13-14% SL; pelvic-fin length 19% SL; pectoral-fin length 23-24% SL; first dorsal-fin height 23-24% SL; second dorsal-fin height 15-26% SL; 8-10 total bars on caudal fin, 4-6 pale brown bars on upper caudal-fin lobe, 4 of same color on lower lobe with the 3 proximal bars on upper lobe slightly curved with caudal-fin bars wider than pale interspaces between bars; in preserved specimens, bars faintly retained. Fresh fish with 3 pale brown lateral body stripes, one mid-lateral stripe reaching from behind head to caudal-fin base, and another one below, starting behind from behind pectoral-fin base and a third short stripe just above lateral line below dorsal fins; length of dark first dorsal-fin tip clearly smaller than orbit; head and body silvery rose laterally, dorsally dark reddish, and belly silvery, white in fresh fish; body uniformly brown in preserved (Ref. 82903).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Uiblein, F. and P.C. Heemstra, 2010. A taxonomic review of the Western Indian Ocean goatfishes of the genus Upeneus (Family Mullidae), with descriptions of four new species. Smithiana 11:35-71. (Ref. 83903)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 120744)
CITES (Ref. 118484)
Threat to humans
CountriesFAO areasEcosystemsOccurrencesIntroductionsStocksEcologyDietFood itemsFood consumptionRation
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00933 (0.00445 - 0.01956), b=3.09 (2.92 - 3.26), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 3.5 ±0.4 se; Based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (20 of 100) .