Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; reef-associated; oceanodromous (Ref. 51243); depth range 3 - 135 m (Ref. 58302). Tropical
Pacific Ocean: Central Honshu, Japan to the South China Sea (Ref. 559). Also known from Hawaii (Ref. 7490). Reported in Norfolk Island (Ref. 89275).
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?, range 47 - ? cm
Max length : 86.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 559); max. published weight: 12.1 kg (Ref. 40637)
Inhabit rocky and coral reefs. Juveniles associate with drifting seaweed (Ref. 12114, 12115, 58302). Benthopelagic (Ref. 58302).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Masuda, H., K. Amaoka, C. Araga, T. Uyeno and T. Yoshino, 1984. The fishes of the Japanese Archipelago. Vol. 1. Tokai University Press, Tokyo, Japan. 437 p. (text). (Ref. 559)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: commercial; aquaculture: commercial; gamefish: yes
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 19.5 - 28.9, mean 27.4 °C (based on 1078 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5156 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01995 (0.00906 - 0.04395), b=3.01 (2.83 - 3.19), in cm total length, based on all LWR estimates for this body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.6 ±0.50 se; based on food items.
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate vulnerability (37 of 100) .