Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Centrarchiformes
(Basses) > Terapontidae
(Grunters or tigerperches)
Etymology: Hephaestus: Taken from Haphaistos, the God of fire in the Greek mythology; 1658 (Ref. 45335). More on author: Macleay.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Freshwater; benthopelagic. Tropical; 25°C - 30°C (Ref. 2060); 5°S - 8°S
Oceania: endemic to northern Australia (Daly River, Northern Territory to upper Burdekin, Queensland). Reported from southern Papua New Guinea (Ref. 2847).
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 54.0 cm FL male/unsexed; (Ref. 40637); common length : 25.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 44894); max. published weight: 6.2 kg (Ref. 40637)
More commonly found in larger flowing streams in both clear or turbid water. Adults inhabit particularly the upper reaches of river systems over sandy or rocky bottoms with sparse aquatic plant growth. Can tolerate acidic conditions (to a pH of 4.0) and temperatures between 12° and 34°C. Feed on frogs, insects, worms, shrimps, algae, plant roots, and palm berries. Some adults develop greatly oversized `blubber' lips. Spawns in summer in response to rising water levels following monsoonal rains. Group spawning may occur (Ref. 44894). Spawns in summer when streams begin to rise. Eggs are guarded and fanned by the male parent (Ref. 205). A good angling species growing to a weight of 4 kilograms.
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Eggs are guarded and fanned by the male parent (Ref. 205).
Allen, G.R., 1989. Freshwater fishes of Australia. T.F.H. Publications, Inc., Neptune City, New Jersey. (Ref. 5259)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Threat to humans
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5001 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01349 (0.00610 - 0.02985), b=3.02 (2.83 - 3.21), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 2.8 ±0.36 se; based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate to high vulnerability (49 of 100) .