Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Siluriformes
(Catfishes) > Pimelodidae
Etymology: Phractocephalus: Greek, phraktos = fence + Greek, kephale = head (Ref. 45335). More on authors: Bloch & Schneider.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Freshwater; demersal; pH range: 5.5 - 6.8; dH range: ? - 10; potamodromous (Ref. 51243). Tropical; 20°C - 26°C (Ref. 2060)
South America: Amazon and Orinoco River basins.
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?, range 85 - ? cm
Max length : 135 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 111518); common length : 60.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 12193); max. published weight: 44.2 kg (Ref. 40637)
Feeds on fish, crabs and fruits (Ref. 6868). The species is introduced but not established in Florida.
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Lundberg, J.G. and M.W. Littmann, 2003. Pimelodidae (Long-whiskered catfishes). p. 432-446. In R.E. Reis, S.O. Kullander and C.J. Ferraris, Jr. (eds.) Checklist of the Freshwater Fishes of South and Central America. Porto Alegre: EDIPUCRS, Brasil. (Ref. 36506)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: minor commercial; gamefish: yes; aquarium: commercial
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 1.0000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00912 (0.00514 - 0.01618), b=3.08 (2.93 - 3.23), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species & (Sub)family-body (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 4.2 ±0.73 se; based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5 - 14 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): High to very high vulnerability (67 of 100) .