Classification / Names
Common names | Synonyms | Catalog of Fishes(genus, species) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa
Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Cyprinodontiformes
(Rivulines, killifishes and live bearers) > Poeciliidae
(Poeciliids) > Poeciliinae
Etymology: Phalloceros: Greek, phallos = penis + Greek, keras = horn (Ref. 45335).
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Freshwater; benthopelagic; depth range - m (Ref. ), usually - m (Ref. ). Tropical; 0°C -
South America: Rio Paraná-Paraguay basin and coastal drainages from rio Itaboapana to rio Araranguá.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 3.4 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 76852); 4.7 cm SL (female)
Morphology | Morphometrics
soft rays: 8 - 12;
Vertebrae: 31 - 33. Diagnosed from Phalloceros anisophallos, Phalloceros megapolos, Phalloceros spiloura, Phalloceros reisi, Phalloceros buckupi,
Phalloceros alessandrae, Phalloceros lucenorum, Phalloceros uai, Phalloceros pellos, and Phalloceros malabarbai by the female urogenital papilla straight along midline and located between the anus and the base of first anal-fin ray (vs. curved to the right, located laterally; border of the anal aperture in contact with the first anal-fin ray). Differs from Phalloceros tupinamba, Phalloceros leptokeras, and Phalloceros aspilos by the female urogenital papilla straight along midline (vs. slightly left turned); absence of a lateral ramus of the female urogenital papilla (vs. lateral ramus present); and small and simple hook in gonopodial appendix (vs. large sickle like hook).
Can be distinguished from Phalloceros caudimaculatus, Phalloceros heptaktinos, Phalloceros ocellatus, Phalloceros mikrommatos, and Phalloceros leticiae by having a hook in the gonopodial appendix (vs. hook absent); from Phalloceros titthos by the absence of symphyseal papillae on large females (vs. symphyseal papillae present); and from Phalloceros enneaktinos by the possession
of seven or eight dorsal-fin rays (vs. nine) (see remarks); from Phalloceros elachistos by the hook of gonopodial appendix not forming a lateral protuberance (vs. very small in adults, forming a lateral minute protuberance). In juveniles hook present and located on the appendix corner (vs. absent or (rarely) minuscule, when present in juveniles hook never situated on the appendix corner). Skin present covering the tip of appendix on juveniles (vs. skin absent). Distal half of appendix narrower than proximal half (vs. approximately as wide as or slightly narrower than proximal half) (Ref. 76852).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Lucinda, P.H.F., 2008. Systematics and biogeography of the genus Phalloceros Eigenmann, 1907 (Cyprinodontiformes: Poeciliidae: Poeciliinae), with the description of twenty-one new species. Neotrop. Ichthyol. 6(2):113-158. (Ref. 76852)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 124695)
Threat to humans
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01122 (0.00683 - 0.01843), b=3.24 (3.10 - 3.38), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species & (Sub)family-body (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.0 ±0.4 se; based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (18 of 100) .