Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Freshwater; demersal; non-migratory. Temperate; 18°C - 28°C (Ref. 2060); 32°S - 36°S
Oceania: Murray-Darling basin, New South Wales, Australia - Mitta Mitta River, upper Murray River (Tintaldra, Mulwala area-Ref. 2906), MurrumbidgeeRiver, Cataract Dam (NepeanRiver), also in the Macquarie River (Ref. 2906). Stocked population in Seven Creeks River and Glenbawm Dam (HunterRiver) (Ref. 2906); also in Lake Sambell (Ref. 6071).
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 85.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 44894); common length : 50.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 5259); max. published weight: 16.0 kg (Ref. 26161)
Occur from riffle and boulder areas in relatively small upland streams to larger deeper rivers with sand and clay substrates and submerged timber and snags (Ref. 26161, 44894). Found in still and fast-flowing waters (14°-28°C), usually over bedrock, boulder and gravel bottoms of streams. Large fish confined to deep holes between falls and rapids, while small ones are found among boulders. Feed on insects, crayfish, shrimp, and small fishes; cannibalism occurs. Spawn in spring and early summer. The large, adhesive eggs are laid on hard surfaces. Hatching occurs in 5-10 days at 20°C. Sexual maturity is attained at 3-5 years of age (Ref. 44894). Territorial juveniles. Infected by parasitic protozoan Chilodonella cyprini; susceptible to `ich' & Saprolegnia infections. Protected by law and its capture is strictly prohibited. Known to hybridize with closely related Murray (Ref. 44894).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
The demersal and adhesive eggs (2.5-3.6 mm in diameter) are laid onto a hard surface. Hatching starts 5 days after fertilization and continues for up to 10 days at around 20°C.
Paxton, J.R., D.F. Hoese, G.R. Allen and J.E. Hanley, 1989. Pisces. Petromyzontidae to Carangidae. Zoological Catalogue of Australia, Vol. 7. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra, 665 p. (Ref. 7300)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Fisheries: of potential interest; aquaculture: experimental; gamefish: yes; aquarium: commercial
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5625 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01122 (0.00514 - 0.02450), b=3.04 (2.87 - 3.21), in cm total length, based on all LWR estimates for this body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 4.0 ±0.60 se; based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5 - 14 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): High to very high vulnerability (67 of 100) .