Classification / Names
Common names | Synonyms | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa
Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Perciformes
(Perch-likes) > Mullidae
Etymology: Upeneus: Greek, ypene, -es = upper lip (Ref. 45335). More on author: Day.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Freshwater; demersal; depth range 8 - 165 m (Ref. 98481). Tropical
Indo-West Pacific: from the Red Sea to South Africa, to northern Australia.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 16.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 83903)
(total): 9. This species is distinguished by the following characters: D VII + 9; pectoral fins 12-15; gill rakers 5-8 + 16-19 = 23-26. Adult measurements as %SL: body depth at first dorsal fin origin 22-26 and at anus 18-22; caudal-peduncle depth 9.1-11; maximum head depth 18-22 and through eye 15-18; head length 26-30; orbit length 5.9-8.8; upper jaw length 9.5-12; barbel length 16-20; caudal-fin length 27-31; anal-fin height 15-19; pelvic-fin length 19-22; pectoral-fin length 19-22; first dorsal-fin height 18-24; second dorsal-fin height 14-18; 7-13 total bars on caudal fin, 5 (rarely 4) reddish bars on upper caudal-fin lobe, with 5 (rarely 4) bars distally from fork and 1 bar close to fin base, of similar width or narrower than the pale interspaces between bars; there are 2-8 faint, irregular red bars on ventral margin of lower caudal-fin lobe, sometimes extending to dorsal half of lobe, connecting to a red stripe which covers the lobe dorsally to two-thirds of its width at maximum; the caudal-fin lobe bars and stripe fade away after death and only traces retained in preserved fish; when fresh, barbels yellow or white; body colour may be variable, often white or rose below lateral line, covered by red pigmentation above lateral line which may also reach down ventrally and to head, sometimes forming red patches or blotches; belly white; the body pale brown and not dorsally darkened in preserved fish (Ref. 83903).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Uiblein, F. and P.C. Heemstra, 2010. A taxonomic review of the Western Indian Ocean goatfishes of the genus Upeneus (Family Mullidae), with descriptions of four new species. Smithiana 11:35-71. (Ref. 83903)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 120744)
CITES (Ref. 118484)
Threat to humans
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01148 (0.00686 - 0.01921), b=3.06 (2.92 - 3.20), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this species & Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 3.5 ±0.0 se; Based on diet studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (23 of 100) .