Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Kurtiformes
(Nurseryfishes, cardinalfishes.) > Apogonidae
(Cardinalfishes) > Apogoninae
More on author: Fowler.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; reef-associated; depth range 3 - 25 m (Ref. 37816), usually - m (Ref. ). Tropical; 0°C - ; 32°N - 22°S
Indo-Pacific: Malaysia to the Solomon Islands, north to southern Japan, south to northwestern Australia; Palau in Micronesia.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 10.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 48635); common length : 7.7 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 37816)
Morphology | Morphometrics
An uncommon species found among branching corals of sheltered lagoon reefs (Ref.1607). In small to large aggregations low on the reef. Rarely seen deeper than 10 m (Ref. 48635).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Mouthbrooders (Ref. 240). Distinct pairing during courtship and spawning (Ref. 205).
Myers, R.F., 1991. Micronesian reef fishes. Second Ed. Coral Graphics, Barrigada, Guam. 298 p. (Ref. 1602)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 124695)
Threat to humans
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 27.6 - 29.3, mean 28.8 °C (based on 1366 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00501 (0.00201 - 0.01253), b=3.26 (3.04 - 3.48), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.5 ±0.5 se; based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (10 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 171 [97, 369] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.905 [0.568, 1.531] mg/100g ; Protein = 18.9 [17.9, 20.0] % ; Omega3 = 0.125 [0.072, 0.219] g/100g ; Selenium = 32.2 [15.9, 63.4] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 81.2 [27.8, 225.4] μg/100g ; Zinc = 1.84 [1.24, 2.70] mg/100g (wet weight);