Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; demersal; depth range 15 - 269 m (Ref. 58496). Boreal
Northwest Pacific: Japan and the Sea of Okhotsk.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 44.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 56527); common length : 31.5 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 56557); max. published weight: 1.0 kg (Ref. 56527)
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
External fertilization with internal insemination (Ref. 101419). This is also called 'internal gametic association' which describes another unique phenomenon of the reproductive process. In this phenomenon, the presence of the spermatozoa in the ovarian cavity is done through copulation, but the spermatozoa entry into the egg and subsequent fertilization only occurred externally when the eggs are spawned and came into contact with seawater (Ref. 101419).
Nakabo, T., 2002. Fishes of Japan with pictorial keys to the species, English edition I. Tokai University Press, Japan, pp v-866. (Ref. 41299)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Threat to humans
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 3.6 - 17.3, mean 12.9 °C (based on 37 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 1.0000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00724 (0.00309 - 0.01700), b=3.13 (2.92 - 3.34), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.6 ±0.4 se; based on diet studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Very Low, minimum population doubling time more than 14 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): High vulnerability (65 of 100) .