Classification / Names
Common names | Synonyms | Catalog of Fishes(genus, species) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa
Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Mulliformes
(Goatfishes) > Mullidae
Etymology: Parupeneus: Latin, parum, parvum = small + Peneus, the name of a river; procerigena: From the Latin for high cheek, in reference to its deep cheek (Ref. 45339)
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; demersal; depth range 92 - 148 m (Ref. 45339), usually - m (Ref. ). Tropical; 0°C -
Western Indian Ocean: Saya de Malha Bank.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 19.8 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 45339)
Morphology | Morphometrics
soft rays: 7;
Vertebrae: 24. A Parupeneus with 2 scales in lachrymal region, 15-17 (modally 16) pectoral rays, 28 lateral line scales, 7 + 22-24 (modally 7 + 23) gill rakers, deep and compressed body (the depth 2.6-3.1 in SL, with the width 2.1-3.0 in depth), deep cheek (the depth 1.9-2.2 in head length (HL)), long distance between nostrils(3.1-3.5 in HL), and relatively long upper jaw (the length 2.2-2.6 in HL) (Ref. 45339).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Kim, B.-J. and K. Amaoka, 2001. A new species, Parupeneus procerigena, from the Saya de Malha Bank in the western Indian Ocean (Perciformes: Mullidae). Ichthyol. Res. 48(1):45-50. (Ref. 45339)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 124695)
Threat to humans
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 18.9 - 22.3, mean 20 °C (based on 6 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01202 (0.00556 - 0.02601), b=3.10 (2.93 - 3.27), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.4 ±0.4 se; based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low to moderate vulnerability (27 of 100) .