Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Pleuronectiformes
(Flatfishes) > Cynoglossidae
(Tonguefishes) > Cynoglossinae
Etymology: Cynoglossus: Greek, kyon = dog + Greek, odous = teeth + Greek, glossa = tongue (Ref. 45335). More on author: Norman.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; brackish; benthopelagic; non-migratory. Tropical
Indian Ocean: restricted to the coast of India.
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm 11.5  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 30.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 122100); common length : 15.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 3391)
Inhabits shallow muddy and sandy bottoms of the continental self, down to 25 m. Also found in midwaters in certain seasons of the year. Enters estuaries (Ref. 4833). Feeds mainly on benthic invertebrates, especially worms.
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Menon, A.G.K., 1984. Cynoglossidae. In W. Fischer and G. Bianchi (eds.) FAO species identification sheets for fishery purposes. Western Indian Ocean fishing area 51. Vol. 2. (Ref. 3391)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Threat to humans
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00447 (0.00282 - 0.00708), b=2.89 (2.76 - 3.02), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species & Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.3 ±0.32 se; based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (K=0.7).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (22 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 273 [123, 549] mg/100g ; Iron = 1.15 [0.62, 1.89] mg/100g ; Protein = 16.7 [14.4, 18.9] % ; Omega3 = 0.245 [0.087, 0.618] g/100g ; Selenium = 64.5 [28.3, 154.1] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 22.2 [6.1, 69.9] μg/100g ; Zinc = 1.88 [1.28, 2.80] mg/100g (wet weight);