Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Aulopiformes
(Grinners) > Paralepididae
Etymology: Anotopterus: Greek, a = without + Greek, noton = back + Greek, pteron = fin (Ref. 45335). More on author: Regan.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; bathypelagic; depth range 0 - 2579 m (Ref. 36355). Deep-water; 55°S - 72°S
Southern Ocean: circumglobal (Ref. 31260). Collected from Meteor and Maud rises, in the Lazarev Sea, and near the South Sandwich Islands (Ref. 36355).
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 105 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 31260); common length : 90.0 cm NG male/unsexed; (Ref. 5755)
Morphology | Morphometrics
soft rays: 13 - 16;
Vertebrae: 81 - 85. In adults, head depth 21.3-23.2% of lower jaw length; postorbital region 5.0-6.7% SL or 25.5-30% HL (1/3 of HL). Rear edge of gill cover overlaps with the vertical of the middle of the 4th vertebrae. Pectoral fins begin at the vertical of the end of the 4th to beginning of 5th vertebrae. Postadipose distance represents 4.6-5.9% SL (Ref. 31260).
Inhabits the epimesopelagic layer of the southern ocean circumglobally. Only fry and juveniles were observed in subtropical waters; large adults encountered in sub-Antarctic and Antarctic waters. Capable of shedding teeth and reducing gastrointestinal tract prior to spawning. Monocyclic, that is, they die after the first spawning (a reproductive strategy that evolved as a result of the large distance between feeding and spawning areas). Main food is
Notolepis coatsi which are 15-38 cm in length and weighs to 57-90 g (Ref. 31260).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Kukuev, E.I., 1998. Systematics and distribution in the world ocean of daggertooth fishes of the genus Anotopterus (Anotopteridae, Aulopiformes). J. Ichthyol. 38(9):716-729. (Ref. 31260)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Threat to humans
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): -0.5 - 1.5, mean 0.7 °C (based on 292 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.7500 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00389 (0.00180 - 0.00842), b=3.12 (2.94 - 3.30), in cm total length, based on all LWR estimates for this body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 4.5 ±0.80 se; based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5 - 14 years (Assuming tmax>10).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate to high vulnerability (45 of 100) .