Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; reef-associated; depth range 1 - 60 m (Ref. 27115), usually 25 - 60 m (Ref. 27115). Tropical; 24°C - 28°C (Ref. 27115); 35°N - 31°S, 30°E - 128°W
Indo-Pacific: East Africa, including the Mascarene Islands (Ref. 37792) to the Hawaiian, Marquesan, and Tuamoto islands, north to southern Japan, south to Lord Howe Island.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 100.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 2334)
soft rays: 27 - 28. Plain brown or olivaceous in color, paler below; subadults with black caudal rays, narrow margins and white caudal filaments; pectoral fins with white distal margins (Ref. 3145).
Juveniles occur in clear, shallow lagoon reefs at depths as little as 1 m; adults rarely seen in less than 25 m, encountered off outer reef drop-offs in small schools (Ref. 30573, 48637). Benthopelagic (Ref. 58302). Feeds on large zooplankton during the day and shelter within the reef during the night; also benthic algae (Ref. 30573, 48637).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Spawn in pairs (Ref. 240).
Myers, R.F., 1991. Micronesian reef fishes. Second Ed. Coral Graphics, Barrigada, Guam. 298 p. (Ref. 1602)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Threat to humans
Reports of ciguatera poisoning (Ref. 30298)
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 23.5 - 28.3, mean 27.1 °C (based on 335 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.02239 (0.01285 - 0.03900), b=2.98 (2.83 - 3.13), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species & Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 2.1 ±0.09 se; based on food items.
Generation time: 5.2 ( na - na) years. Estimated as median ln(3)/K based on 1 growth studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5 - 14 years (K=0.213; Tmax=23).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate to high vulnerability (45 of 100) .