Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Eupercaria/misc
(Various families in series Eupercaria) > Sparidae
Etymology: Diplodus: Greek, diploos = twice + Greek, odous = teeth (Ref. 45335).
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; reef-associated; depth range 0 - 50 m (Ref. 27121). Tropical; - 35°S
Southeast Atlantic and Western Indian Ocean: Angola to Mozambique and southern Madagascar, possibly reaching Mauritius (Ref. 3168, 3198).
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm 21.1  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 45.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 3198); common length : 30.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 3507); max. reported age: 21 years (Ref. 26244)
Adults occur in shallow rocky and sandy substrate; juveniles in shallow reefs, estuary mouths and intertidal pools, sandy beach surf zone. Omnivorous on seaweeds, sponges and bivalves. Also feeds on crustaceans, worms, mollusks, and fish. Sold fresh or whole and as bait.
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Bauchot, M.-L. and J.-C. Hureau, 1990. Sparidae. p. 790-812. In J.C. Quero, J.C. Hureau, C. Karrer, A. Post and L. Saldanha (eds.) Check-list of the fishes of the eastern tropical Atlantic (CLOFETA). JNICT, Lisbon; SEI, Paris; and UNESCO, Paris. Vol. 2. (Ref. 3688)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: minor commercial; gamefish: yes; bait: usually
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 18.6 - 27, mean 25.9 °C (based on 56 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01549 (0.00982 - 0.02443), b=3.08 (2.95 - 3.21), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species & Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 2.7 ±0.15 se; based on food items.
Generation time: 4.4 ( na - na) years. Estimated as median ln(3)/K based on 1 growth studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (tm=3; tmax=21).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate vulnerability (38 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 39.9 [23.0, 72.0] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.605 [0.323, 1.023] mg/100g ; Protein = 19.6 [18.5, 20.7] % ; Omega3 = 0.114 [0.064, 0.212] g/100g ; Selenium = 37.2 [19.7, 62.3] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 43.4 [12.9, 127.2] μg/100g ; Zinc = 1.24 [0.75, 1.77] mg/100g (wet weight);