Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Cichliformes
(Cichlids, convict blennies) > Cichlidae
(Cichlids) > Pseudocrenilabrinae
Etymology: Hemichromis: Greek, hemis = half + Greek, chromis = a fish, perhaps a perch (Ref. 45335). More on author: Guichenot.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Freshwater; benthopelagic; pH range: ? - 7.0; dH range: ? - 15. Tropical; 23°C - 25°C (Ref. 2060)
Africa: Cameroon to the Republic of Congo, the entire Congo River, Okavango and Zambesi system (Ref. 81260) and the Cuanza River in Angola (Ref. 11970, 120641). Also reported from west Africa (Guinea, Sierra Leone, Liberia, Togo, Benin, Nigeria) (Ref. 43352, 81260), but this needs confirmation (Ref. 53405). Upper Zambezi and (some) Congo populations may represent a different species (Ref. 81260).
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm 10.7, range 10 - 11.5 cm
Max length : 18.7 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 81260)
(total): 13 - 15;
soft rays: 8 - 10. Diagnosis: 4-5 distinct blotches or ovoid bars along lateral mid-line (Ref. 44091, 81260), but bands not obvious in large males which assume a very dark to almost black coloration (Ref. 44091). Scales olive to yellow; series of thin red dots often forming horizontal lines along the mid-portion of flanks; normally 2 rows of teeth on upper jaw (Ref. 81260). Magenta spot on gill cover (Ref. 44091).
Found in shallow lakes and streams (Ref. 58302). Highly predaceous and thus used in some areas for tilapia control; feeds on fish, shrimp and aquatic insects; very aggressive and territorial (Ref. 44091); the parents guard the nest and larvae (Ref. 7248). Pair-bonding, substrate brooder (Ref. 81260). Oviparous (Ref. 205).
Daget, J. and G.G. Teugels, 1991. Hemichromis. p. 187-194. In J. Daget, J.-P. Gosse, G.G. Teugels and D.F.E. Thys van den Audenaerde (eds.) Check-list of the freshwater fishes of Africa, CLOFFA, ISNB, Brussels; MRAC, Tervuren; and ORSTOM, Paris. Vol. 4. (Ref. 5644)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Threat to humans
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5001 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01479 (0.00696 - 0.03143), b=2.97 (2.80 - 3.14), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.7 ±0.58 se; based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (tm<1; Fec=500).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low to moderate vulnerability (26 of 100) .