Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; reef-associated; depth range - 50 m (Ref. 54540), usually - m (Ref. ). Tropical; 0°C - ; 1°S - 34°S, 112°E - 163°E (Ref. 54540)
Western Pacific: New Guinea and northern Australia. Possibly occurring in Malaysia, Sumatra (Indonesia), and the Solomon Islands.
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?, range 60 - ? cm
Max length : 107 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 247)
Commonly found in shallow water of coral reefs (Ref. 6871). Often in tide pools (Ref. 13575). Feeds mainly on benthic invertebrates (Ref. 6871). Oviparous (Ref. 50449). Squirms when captured but cannot readily escape (Ref. 247). Survives well in aquariums (Ref. 6871). Has the ability to survive low oxygen conditions by switching of non-essential brain functions; apparently an adaption for hunting in tide-pools with low oxygen (Ref. 52022).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Oviparous, paired eggs are laid. Embryos feed solely on yolk (Ref. 50449). Prior to copulation, the male gets a good grasp of the female by by biting the body and even the gills (Ref. 49562, 51043).
Compagno, L.J.V., 1984. FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 4. Sharks of the world. An annotated and illustrated catalogue of shark species known to date. Part 1 - Hexanchiformes to Lamniformes. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(4/1):1-249. Rome, FAO. (Ref. 247)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 124695)
Fisheries: of no interest
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 24.1 - 28, mean 26.9 °C (based on 262 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5020 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00398 (0.00177 - 0.00897), b=3.09 (2.89 - 3.29), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.4 ±0.2 se; based on diet studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5 - 14 years (Fec assumed to be <100).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate to high vulnerability (46 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 19.9 [3.3, 63.7] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.418 [0.117, 1.128] mg/100g ; Protein = 18.8 [16.7, 21.0] % ; Omega3 = 0.0915 [, ] g/100g ; Selenium = 34.6 [9.6, 94.4] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 39 [14, 100] μg/100g ; Zinc = 0.891 [0.423, 2.329] mg/100g (wet weight);