Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; brackish; pelagic-neritic; amphidromous (Ref. 51243); depth range 0 - 50 m (Ref. 189). Tropical; 27°N - 7°S, 61°E - 121°E (Ref. 189)
Indo-Pacific: coasts of Pakistan, India, Myanmar and south of Penang; apparently not yet found in Gulf of Oman nor in the Persian Gulf; Malaysia, Indonesia north to Taiwan, no records from Papua New Guinea or northern coasts of Australia.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 11.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 189)
soft rays: 29 - 37. Belly with 21 to 24 keeled scutes from isthmus to anus. Maxilla very long, reaching at least halfway along pectoral fin and to pelvic fin base in adults; first supra-maxilla absent; lower jaw slender. gill rakers with serrae on the inner edge in distinct clumps. A dark blotch behind upper part of gill opening, sometimes joined to dark saddle on nape.
Coastal pelagic (Ref. 68964). Presumably schooling, mostly inshore and perhaps tolerating estuarine conditions. Feeds on diatoms when young and prawn larvae, copepods and cypris when larger. The number of museum specimens suggest that it is fairly common (but not in Bombay waters).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Munroe, T.A. and M. Nizinski, 1999. Engraulidae. Anchovies. p. 1698-1706. In K.E. Carpenter and V.H. Niem (eds.) FAO species identification guide for fishery purposes. The living marine resources of the WCP. Vol. 3. Batoid fishes, chimaeras and bony fishes part 1 (Elopidae to Linophrynidae). FAO, Rome. (Ref. 9822)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 118484)
Threat to humans
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 25 - 29.2, mean 28.6 °C (based on 716 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00589 (0.00325 - 0.01068), b=3.14 (2.99 - 3.29), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species & Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 2.8 ±0.21 se; based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (15 of 100) .