Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Tetraodontiformes
(Puffers and filefishes) > Balistidae
Etymology: Rhinecanthus: Greek, rhinos = nose + Greek, akantha = thorn (Ref. 45335). More on author: Linnaeus.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; reef-associated; depth range 0 - 50 m (Ref. 7348). Tropical; 30°N - 30°S
Indo-Pacific: Red Sea (Ref. 7348) south to South Africa (Ref. 4420) and east to the Hawaiian, Marquesan, and Tuamoto islands, north to southern Japan, south to Lord Howe Island. Eastern Atlantic: Senegal to South Africa (Ref. 7348).
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm 14.0  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 30.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 4420); common length : 15.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 5450)
Commonly found in subtidal reef flats and shallow protected lagoons, Ref. 48637. Benthopelagic (Ref. 58302). Juveniles secretive with rubble patches, adults swim about openly but are usually shy (Ref. 48637). Territorial. Feed on algae, detritus, mollusks, crustaceans, worms, sea urchins, fishes, corals, tunicates, forams, and eggs (Ref. 3921). Oviparous (Ref. 205). Sleep on its side; makes a whirring noise when alarmed (Ref. 4420). Also caught with drive-in nets and is considered a popular aquarium fish (Ref. 9770).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Distinct pairing (Ref. 205). Mating system may be a mixture of polygyny, monogamy, and potential promiscuity in solitary females but the primary mating system considered for this species is polygyny (Ref. 116439). Females are territorial, solely tending and guarding the eggs (Ref. 116451). Males exhibit polygyny (Ref. 116451).
Myers, R.F., 1991. Micronesian reef fishes. Second Ed. Coral Graphics, Barrigada, Guam. 298 p. (Ref. 1602)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: minor commercial; aquarium: commercial
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 24.5 - 29, mean 27.7 °C (based on 1010 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5078 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01905 (0.01124 - 0.03231), b=2.92 (2.77 - 3.07), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species & (Sub)family-body (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.2 ±0.1 se; based on diet studies.
Generation time: 2.7 ( na - na) years. Estimated as median ln(3)/K based on 1 growth studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (K=0.4).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low to moderate vulnerability (30 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 57.6 [22.6, 120.5] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.635 [0.399, 1.246] mg/100g ; Protein = 18.6 [16.5, 20.6] % ; Omega3 = 0.125 [0.063, 0.251] g/100g ; Selenium = 32.6 [17.1, 67.7] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 49.5 [15.1, 157.3] μg/100g ; Zinc = 1.17 [0.77, 1.79] mg/100g (wet weight);