Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Tetraodontiformes
(Puffers and filefishes) > Monacanthidae
Etymology: Cantherhines: Greek, kanthos = the outer or inner corner of the eye, where the lids meet, 1646 + Greek, rhinos = nose (Ref. 45335).
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; reef-associated; non-migratory; depth range 6 - 70 m (Ref. 89467), usually 6 - 35 m (Ref. 9710). Tropical; 32°N - 32°S
Indo-Pacific: East Africa to French Polynesia, north to Japan and Hawaii. Eastern Pacific: Mexico to Colombia (Ref. 9318).
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 38.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 30573); common length : 25.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 30573)
soft rays: 28 - 35. Greyish brown to yellowish brown with about 12 vertical dark brown bars; lips whitish; male adults with orange peduncle spines; soft dorsal, anal and pectoral fins pale yellowish; caudal fin orange with dusky rays (Ref. 4421). Sexually dimorphic with males having longer and deeper orange peduncular spines and deeper orange tail and eyes (Ref. 37816).
Inhabit offshore coral reefs usually solitary or in pairs (Ref. 5503, 48637). Common in surface waters around oceanic islands (Ref. 9318). Benthopelagic (Ref. 58302). Shy species, usually retreating quickly into caves or large crevices of the reef (Ref. 48637). Juveniles are pelagic, seen under floating objects (Ref. 9318). Feed on tips of branching corals, algae, sponges, sea urchins, and mollusks (Ref. 1602).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Myers, R.F., 1991. Micronesian reef fishes. Second Ed. Coral Graphics, Barrigada, Guam. 298 p. (Ref. 1602)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Threat to humans
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 24.3 - 28.9, mean 27.6 °C (based on 1090 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5002 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.02512 (0.01455 - 0.04337), b=2.92 (2.77 - 3.07), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species & (Sub)family-body (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.1 ±0.33 se; based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate vulnerability (36 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 23.2 [9.0, 93.5] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.832 [0.295, 2.368] mg/100g ; Protein = 18.6 [16.2, 20.8] % ; Omega3 = 0.0773 [, ] g/100g ; Selenium = 41.7 [15.3, 118.8] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 49.5 [15.3, 161.2] μg/100g ; Zinc = 1.51 [0.61, 2.75] mg/100g (wet weight);