Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Eupercaria/misc
(Various families in series Eupercaria) > Gerreidae
Etymology: Gerres: Latin, gerres = a kind of anchovies; cited by Plinius.
More on author: Bloch.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; brackish; reef-associated; oceanodromous (Ref. 51243); depth range 1 - 40 m (Ref. 1602). Tropical; 26°C - 29°C (Ref. 4959); 30°N - 12°S
Indo-West Pacific: Madagascar to Australia. Reported from Vanuatu (Ref. 13300). Larvae reported in Japan as Gerres abbreviatus (Ref. 9902).
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 30.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 12915); common length : 25.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 37816)
soft rays: 7. Body silvery with indistinct fine dark stripes along scale rows above and 4-6 rows immediately below lateral line (apparent in newly preserved specimens; larger fishes). Body deep, depth max 1.9-2.3 in SL. Dorsal fin 2nd spine longer than 3rd; anal fin 2nd spine long and robust; caudal fin short and deeply forked; pectoral fins reaches beyond level of anal fin. No scales on upper preopercular flange in approximately 10 cm SL specimens; 1-5 scales (usually 2-3) in over 16 cm SL specimens. Scales between 5th dorsal fin spine base and lateral line 3.5-4.5 (Ref. 28029, 90102). Supraneural bones 3 (Ref. 41102). Ventral and anal fins yellow with white tips Ref. 34765).
Marine species that enters estuaries and coastal lagoons in Madagascar (Ref. 4323). Forms schools on sandy bottoms (Ref. 12915, 48635). Small juveniles feed on zooplankton, larger fish feed on small polychaetes, bivalves, crustaceans and fishes (Ref. 3409). In Palau, spawners migrate from mangroves and sand flats to the outer reef edge around the full moon (Ref. 1602). Marketed fresh or made into fishballs (Ref. 12915).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Iwatsuki, Y., S. Kimura and T. Yoshino, 1998. Redescription of Gerres erythrourus (Bloch, 1791), a senior synonym of G. abbreviatus Bleeker, 1850 (Teleostei: Perciformes: Gerreidae). Copeia 1998(1):165-172. (Ref. 28029)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 125652)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: minor commercial
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 123201
): 25.2 - 29.1, mean 28.5 °C (based on 694 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82804
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01175 (0.00865 - 0.01595), b=3.03 (2.98 - 3.08), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.3 ±0.43 se; based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (20 of 100).
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 74.7 [33.7, 145.6] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.875 [0.409, 1.696] mg/100g ; Protein = 18 [16, 20] % ; Omega3 = 0.267 [0.116, 0.640] g/100g ; Selenium = 30.2 [12.8, 74.5] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 55.1 [11.3, 228.9] μg/100g ; Zinc = 1.51 [0.86, 2.52] mg/100g (wet weight);