Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Kurtiformes
(Nurseryfishes, cardinalfishes.) > Apogonidae
(Cardinalfishes) > Apogoninae
Etymology: Cheilodipterus: Greek, cheilos = lip + Greek, di = two + Greek, pteryx = fin (Ref. 45335). More on author: Lacepède.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; reef-associated; depth range 0 - 40 m (Ref. 9710), usually ? - 30 m (Ref. 11441). Tropical; 30°N - 35°S, 25°E - 133°W
Indo-Pacific: Red Sea and East Africa (Ref. 8525) to Pitcairn, north to the Ryukyu Islands, south to Lord Howe Island and Rapa.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 25.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 11441)
soft rays: 8. Characterized by having dorsal fin rays VI-I, 9; anal fin rays II,8; pectoral fin rays 12; pelvic fin rays I, 5; pored lateral line scales 25; predorsal scales 6; circumpeduncular scales 12; large canine-like teeth on jaws; preopercular margin serrated (Ref. 93839).; juveniles have a large black blotch on the caudal peduncle which becomes diffuse with age. Adults resemble adults of C. artus, but have wider stripes with darker interspace (Ref. 37816); characterized further by pale grey color; eight red-brown stripes on side, caudal fin base whitish; dark caudal fin margins; greatest depth of body 3.1-3.8 in SL (Ref. 90102).
Common in outer reef slopes in 4-30 m depth; in caves and ledges of clear lagoon and seaward reefs from 0.5 to at least 40 m, generally hovering solitarily in midwater (Ref. 1602). Adults usually in pairs or small groups comprising several pairs; juveniles solitary or small groups (Ref. 48635). Feeds primarily on small fishes (Ref. 9710). Sexual maturity reached at about 8 cm.
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Mouthbrooders (Ref. 240). Distinct pairing during courtship and spawning (Ref. 205). Displays obligate monogamy where a one-to-one pair is established irrespective of resource abundance (Ref. 52884).
Gon, O., 1993. Revision of the cardinalfish genus Cheilodipterus (Perciformes: Apogonidae), with description of five new species. Indo-Pac. Fish. (22):59 p. (Ref. 8525)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Threat to humans
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 24.7 - 29, mean 27.8 °C (based on 1114 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01202 (0.00719 - 0.02011), b=3.17 (3.02 - 3.32), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species & (Sub)family-body (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 4.0 ±0.66 se; based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (23 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 73.5 [44.5, 122.7] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.64 [0.41, 1.11] mg/100g ; Protein = 19.4 [18.3, 20.4] % ; Omega3 = 0.15 [0.10, 0.24] g/100g ; Selenium = 30 [16, 58] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 63.6 [20.7, 198.2] μg/100g ; Zinc = 1.11 [0.75, 1.62] mg/100g (wet weight);