Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Kurtiformes
(Nurseryfishes, cardinalfishes.) > Apogonidae
(Cardinalfishes) > Apogoninae
More on author: Regan.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; reef-associated; depth range 0 - 15 m (Ref. 93839). Tropical; 30°N - 30°S
Indo-Pacific: Red Sea and Sodwana Bay, South Africa (Ref. 4329) to the Line and Pitcairn islands, north to southern Japan, south to New South Wales (Australia) and Rapa.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 11.5 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 90102)
soft rays: 8. Characterized by having dorsal fin rays VII-I, 9; anal fin rays II,8; pectoral fin rays 14; pelvic fin rays I, 5; pored lateral line scales 24; predorsal scales 3-4; circumpeduncular scales 12 (Ref. 93839); Whitish with 5-6 black stripes (Ref. 2334). Secondary dark line extends backwards as far as the first dorsal fin, in large specimens (Ref. 37816). Absence of dark spot on caudal fin base; greatest depth of body 2.7-3.0 in SL (Ref.90102).
Occurs inshore (Ref. 7300). Found in holes or ledges of outer reef flats in areas exposed to surge (Ref. 1602), to depths of about 10 m (Ref. 48635). Nocturnal (Ref. 7300).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Mouthbrooders (Ref. 240). Distinct pairing during courtship and spawning (Ref. 205).
Myers, R.F., 1991. Micronesian reef fishes. Second Ed. Coral Graphics, Barrigada, Guam. 298 p. (Ref. 1602)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Threat to humans
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 25.1 - 29.3, mean 28.4 °C (based on 3096 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01318 (0.00567 - 0.03066), b=3.09 (2.91 - 3.27), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.5 ±0.5 se; based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (11 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 123 [72, 217] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.845 [0.546, 1.485] mg/100g ; Protein = 19.1 [18.0, 20.2] % ; Omega3 = 0.159 [0.095, 0.261] g/100g ; Selenium = 25.9 [13.4, 50.9] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 67.4 [21.6, 212.8] μg/100g ; Zinc = 1.45 [0.97, 2.17] mg/100g (wet weight);