Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Kurtiformes
(Nurseryfishes, cardinalfishes.) > Apogonidae
(Cardinalfishes) > Apogoninae
More on author: Günther.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; reef-associated; depth range 3 - 25 m (Ref. 34765). Tropical
Indo-Pacific: Red Sea south to Inhaca Island (Ref. 4329) and east to the Line and Tuamoto islands, north to the Ryukyu Islands, south to the southern Great Barrier Reef and Rapa.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 10.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 48635)
Found in protected coastal and seaward reef slopes in oceanic locations, to 15 m depth; secretive and rarely seen during daytime (Ref. 48635). Feeds on ostracods, amphipods, shrimps, and polychaetes (Ref. 37816).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Mouthbrooders (Ref. 240). Distinct pairing during courtship and spawning (Ref. 205).
Myers, R.F., 1999. Micronesian reef fishes. A comprehensive guide to the coral reef fishes of Micronesia. Coral Graphics, Barrigada, Guam. 216 p. (Ref. 34765)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Threat to humans
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 24.1 - 29.3, mean 28.3 °C (based on 3308 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5020 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01549 (0.00726 - 0.03306), b=3.07 (2.89 - 3.25), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.3 ±0.35 se; based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (12 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 129 [76, 227] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.888 [0.576, 1.520] mg/100g ; Protein = 19 [18, 20] % ; Omega3 = 0.156 [0.094, 0.257] g/100g ; Selenium = 24.7 [12.9, 48.3] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 67.4 [21.4, 212.6] μg/100g ; Zinc = 1.56 [1.03, 2.33] mg/100g (wet weight);