Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Kurtiformes
(Nurseryfishes, cardinalfishes.) > Apogonidae
(Cardinalfishes) > Apogoninae
More on author: Bleeker.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; brackish; reef-associated; depth range 3 - 158 m (Ref. 27665). Tropical; 32°N - 28°S
Indo-Pacific: Red Sea south to Algoa Bay, South Africa (Ref. 4329) and east to the Line, Marquesan, and Pitcairn islands, north to southern Japan and the Hawaiian Islands, south to New Zealand (Ref. 8879) and Rapa.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 15.5 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 90102)
soft rays: 8. Tan to light red brown in color, dusky scale margins; a brown mid-lateral stripe from tip of snout, through eye to upper caudal base (stripe may fade on peduncle); black spot at base of caudal fin (Ref. 2334, 4329). Further characterized by relatively broad midlateral dark stripe; yellow anterior margin on dorsal fin; green to blue iridescent shades on body when viewed with light at night; juvenile with yellowish head and belly; greatest depth of body 2.5-3.3 in SL (Ref. 90102).
Occurs in clear water lagoon patch reefs and seaward reefs from the lower surge zone to a depth of 45 m (Ref. 1602). Benthopelagic (Ref. 58302). Solitary (Ref. 93839). Feeds at night on small benthic and free-swimming crustaceans (Ref. 1602).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Mouthbrooders (Ref. 240). Distinct pairing during courtship and spawning (Ref. 205).
Myers, R.F., 1991. Micronesian reef fishes. Second Ed. Coral Graphics, Barrigada, Guam. 298 p. (Ref. 1602)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Threat to humans
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 23.9 - 28.9, mean 27.5 °C (based on 1254 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5312 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01318 (0.00832 - 0.02089), b=3.13 (3.00 - 3.26), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species & (Sub)family-body (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.5 ±0.0 se; based on diet studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (14 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 132 [63, 236] mg/100g ; Iron = 1.01 [0.57, 2.02] mg/100g ; Protein = 17.9 [16.7, 19.1] % ; Omega3 = 0.297 [0.141, 0.646] g/100g ; Selenium = 26.4 [9.5, 65.7] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 72.4 [18.2, 268.7] μg/100g ; Zinc = 1.78 [1.11, 2.83] mg/100g (wet weight);