Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Lophiiformes
(Anglerfishes) > Linophrynidae
Etymology: Borophryne: Greek, 'boros' = greedy or gluttonous + Greek, 'phryne' = toad (to mean "greedy seadevil") (Ref. 86949). More on author: Regan.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; bathypelagic; depth range ? - 1750 m (Ref. 58018). Deep-water; 29°N - 7°N, 113°W - 78°W
Eastern Pacific: lower Gulf of California to Gulf of Panama.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 8.3 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 44404)
Morphology | Morphometrics
soft rays: 3;
Vertebrae: 19 - 20. Branchiostegal rays: 5 (Ref. 36495). Metamorphosed females distinguished by the following characteristics: hacks hyoid barbel; widely separated frontals, dorsal margin with conspicuous, rounded, laterally compressed protuberance; absence of epiotic and postemporal spines; extremely slender and reduced maxillae; well developed and few in number, teeth in jaws; vomerine teeth 4; absence of first pharyngobranchial; ceratohyal lacking anterodorsal process (Ref. 86949).
Adults are mesopelagic and bathypelagic (Ref. 36495). Larvae are primarily mesopelagic (Ref. 36495). Males are parasitic, while females are oviparous with planktonic larvae (Ref. 36495). Eggs are presumably contained in floating gelatinous rafts (Ref. 36495).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Watson, W., 1996. Linophrynidae: netdevils. p. 592-595. In H.G. Moser (ed.) The early stages of fishes in the California Current Region. California Cooperative Oceanic Fisheries Investigations (CalCOFI) Atlas No. 33. Allen Press, Inc., Lawrence, Kansas. 1505 p. (Ref. 36495)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Threat to humans
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 5.5 - 9.5, mean 7 °C (based on 26 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 1.0000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01995 (0.00906 - 0.04395), b=3.01 (2.83 - 3.19), in cm total length, based on all LWR estimates for this body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.6 ±0.6 se; based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (10 of 100) .