Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; demersal; depth range 10 - 40 m (Ref. 114953). Deep-water; 15°N - 5°N, 75°E - 80°E (Ref. 114953)
Indian Ocean: endemic to southern India.
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm 43.5  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 75.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 114953)
A demersal species found inshore on continental shelf. Reports from 366 m are probably erroneous. Males mature at ca. 58 cm TL, females by 62 cm TL; born at 18-20 cm TL (Ref. 114953). Ovoviviparous (Ref. 50449). Produces litters of up to 6 pups (Ref. 114953).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Exhibit ovoviparity (aplacental viviparity), with embryos feeding initially on yolk, then receiving additional nourishment from the mother by indirect absorption of uterine fluid enriched with mucus, fat or protein through specialised structures (Ref. 50449).
Compagno, L.J.V., 1999. Checklist of living elasmobranchs. p. 471-498. In W.C. Hamlett (ed.) Sharks, skates, and rays: the biology of elasmobranch fishes. Johns Hopkins University Press, Maryland. (Ref. 35766)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Threat to humans
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5039 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00302 (0.00153 - 0.00594), b=3.13 (2.96 - 3.30), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.4 ±0.5 se; based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5 - 14 years (Fec assumed to be <100).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate to high vulnerability (48 of 100) .