Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Carangaria/misc
(Various families in series Carangaria) > Sphyraenidae
Etymology: Sphyraena: Greek, sphyraina, -es = the name of a fish (Ref. 45335). More on author: Day.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; brackish; reef-associated; depth range ? - 66 m (Ref. 58018). Tropical; 32°N - 24°S
Indo-Pacific: East Africa to the Hawaiian, Marquesan and Tuamoto islands, north to southern Japan. No record from the Western Central Pacific but H. Senou believes that it occurs from the Philippines to north-eastern Australia (Ref. 9768). The exact range is uncertain because of confusion of this species with Sphyraena helleri (Ref. 9768).
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 80.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 5491); common length : 50.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 9137)
Inhabits lagoon and seaward reefs (Ref. 9710). Also found in bays (Ref. 9768). Schooling species. Nocturnally active (Ref. 9768).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Myers, R.F., 1991. Micronesian reef fishes. Second Ed. Coral Graphics, Barrigada, Guam. 298 p. (Ref. 1602)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Threat to humans
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 25 - 29, mean 28 °C (based on 1204 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00724 (0.00338 - 0.01553), b=2.92 (2.75 - 3.09), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 4.5 ±0.80 se; based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate to high vulnerability (46 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 26.2 [9.5, 70.1] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.4 [0.2, 1.3] mg/100g ; Protein = 19.3 [17.4, 21.0] % ; Omega3 = 0.206 [0.083, 0.513] g/100g ; Selenium = 36.1 [9.9, 107.5] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 43.9 [9.5, 288.5] μg/100g ; Zinc = 0.697 [0.406, 1.343] mg/100g (wet weight);