Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; benthopelagic; depth range 10 - 400 m (Ref. 58426), usually 10 - 30 m (Ref. 35388). Temperate; 72°N - 49°N, 70°W - 32°E
Northeast Atlantic: Norwegian coast to Finmarken and Waranger Fjord, occasionally Murman coast, rare in Skagerrak, Kattegat and Öresund, around Helgoland, also British Isles; also the Orkneys, Faroes, Shetlands and Iceland (Ref. 4782). Northwest Atlantic: Canada (Ref. 7251).
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 25.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 4782); 18.0 cm TL (female); common length : 17.5 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 4782)
(total): 50 - 54;
soft rays: 35 - 40. Snout blunt; mouth frog-like. With a large fringed tentacle above each eye, a smaller one in front and others on top of head and on the anterior dorsal fin spines. First anal fin ray a short flexible spine. Lateral line represented by a dorsal and a mediolateral branch of neuromasts (the former begins as a short canal, with 4-5 pores.
Usually over rocks and among seaweeds, never in intertidal zone, at 20 m, but descends from 100-280 m (Ref. 4782). Benthic (Ref. 58426). Feeds on bottom invertebrates (small mollusks, polychaetes, hydroids, sponges), also algae (Ref. 4782). Spawns in October - December (Ref. 35388).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Makushok, V.M., 1986. Stichaeidae. p. 1122-1123. In P.J.P. Whitehead, M.-L. Bauchot, J.-C. Hureau, J. Nielsen and E. Tortonese (eds.) Fishes of the North-eastern Atlantic and the Mediterranean. UNESCO, Paris. Vol. 3. (Ref. 4782)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: of no interest
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 6.7 - 12, mean 10.1 °C (based on 278 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5039 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00380 (0.00149 - 0.00972), b=3.17 (2.94 - 3.40), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.2 ±0.36 se; based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5 - 14 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate to high vulnerability (46 of 100) .