Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; reef-associated; non-migratory; depth range 1 - 20 m (Ref. 86942). Subtropical; 35°N - 35°S
Indo-Pacific: East coast of Africa to the Line Islands and Tuamotu Archipelago; north to Ryukyu Islands, south to the Great Barrier Reef and New Caledonia.
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm 5.8  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 10.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 90102)
Adults are found in large aggregations above thickets of branching Acropora corals in sheltered areas such as subtidal reef flats and lagoons. Juveniles closely tied to individual coral heads (Ref. 9710). Phytoplankton feeders. Breeding is done on sand and rubble. Males prepare nest for spawning which is shared with several females. Large number of eggs spawned hatching in 2-3 days. Males guard the nest ventilating fertilized egg with their caudal fins and feeding on those which do not hatch. Oviparous, distinct pairing during breeding (Ref. 205). Eggs are demersal and adhere to the substrate (Ref. 205). Diurnal species (Ref. 54980; 113699).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Oviparous, distinct pairing during breeding (Ref. 205). Eggs are demersal and adhere to the substrate (Ref. 205). Males guard and aerate the eggs (Ref. 205).
Allen, G.R., 1991. Damselfishes of the world. Mergus Publishers, Melle, Germany. 271 p. (Ref. 7247)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Threat to humans
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 24.6 - 29.3, mean 28.3 °C (based on 3292 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.02138 (0.01296 - 0.03528), b=2.90 (2.77 - 3.03), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species & Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 2.9 ±0.1 se; based on diet studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (21 of 100) .