Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; brackish; reef-associated; depth range 0 - 3 m (Ref. 86942). Tropical; 25°N - 24°S
Indo-Pacific: East Africa to the Marquesan and Tuamoto islands, north to the Yaeyamas. At least one country reports adverse ecological impact after introduction.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 47.7 cm FL male/unsexed; (Ref. 107958); common length : 25.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 2871)
Inhabit shallow protected sandy to muddy areas of reef flats and shallow lagoons while juveniles have been encountered in tide pools (Ref. 205). Benthopelagic (Ref. 58302). Oviparous, eggs are pelagic and non-adhesive (Ref. 205). Marketed fresh and used as live bait in pole-and-line fishing for tuna (Ref. 9812).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Myers, R.F., 1991. Micronesian reef fishes. Second Ed. Coral Graphics, Barrigada, Guam. 298 p. (Ref. 1602)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Threat to humans
Potential pest (Ref. 6362)
Fisheries: commercial; bait: occasionally
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 25.4 - 29.3, mean 28.5 °C (based on 2596 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5625 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01122 (0.00969 - 0.01299), b=2.97 (2.93 - 3.01), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate to high vulnerability (51 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 53 [21, 124] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.876 [0.481, 1.805] mg/100g ; Protein = 17.8 [16.0, 19.7] % ; Omega3 = 0.307 [0.138, 0.728] g/100g ; Selenium = 37.8 [16.0, 88.7] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 51.6 [9.7, 247.8] μg/100g ; Zinc = 1.9 [1.1, 3.2] mg/100g (wet weight);