Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; reef-associated; depth range 1 - 40 m (Ref. 37816). Tropical; 26°N - 28°S
Indo-Pacific: East Africa to the Marquesan and Society islands, north to Taiwan, south to the southern Great Barrier Reef and the Austral Islands.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 17.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 30573)
(total): 9 - 10;
soft rays: 8. Brownish red, mottled with small whitish spots; dark brown spot anteriorly on each side of upper lip; 2 dark lines diverging from the eye; dark brown spot on 1st 2 dorsal membranes (Ref. 4392). Deep-bodied for genus, and snout pointed (Ref. 48636).
Found in coral-rich areas of lagoon and seaward reefs at depths of 1 to over 40 m (Ref. 1602, 48636, 58534). A secretive species (Ref. 8631, 48636), rarely ventures more than a few centimeters from shelter (Ref. 1602). A shy species, usually found in pairs when adult (Ref. 48636). Oviparous, distinct pairing during breeding (Ref. 205).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Oviparous, distinct pairing during breeding (Ref. 205).
Randall, J.E., G.R. Allen and R.C. Steene, 1990. Fishes of the Great Barrier Reef and Coral Sea. University of Hawaii Press, Honolulu, Hawaii. 506 p. (Ref. 2334)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: minor commercial
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 24.8 - 29, mean 27.8 °C (based on 702 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5078 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01660 (0.00720 - 0.03825), b=2.95 (2.76 - 3.14), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.4 ±0.5 se; based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low to moderate vulnerability (26 of 100) .