Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; reef-associated; non-migratory; depth range 3 - 60 m (Ref. 1602). Tropical; 28°N - 24°S, 94°E - 173°W
Indo-Pacific: scattered colonies along the coast of Queensland, the Frankland Group off north Queensland, Western Australia, and New Guinea; Indonesia and the Philippines, and very seldom along the Chinese coast. Recently reported from Tonga (Ref. 53797).
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 15.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 9710)
Found in coastal to outer reef drop-offs with rich invertebrate growth to 60 m depth; may also occur in areas with sparse coral growth. Feed on sponges (Ref. 9710). Oviparous (Ref. 205). Form pairs during breeding (Ref. 205).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Form pairs during breeding (Ref. 205).
Myers, R.F., 1991. Micronesian reef fishes. Second Ed. Coral Graphics, Barrigada, Guam. 298 p. (Ref. 1602)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: minor commercial; aquarium: commercial
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 25.2 - 29, mean 28 °C (based on 672 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.6250 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.02138 (0.01147 - 0.03985), b=2.99 (2.83 - 3.15), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species & (Sub)family-body (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 2.8 ±0.18 se; based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (12 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 99.5 [59.8, 170.4] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.893 [0.586, 1.441] mg/100g ; Protein = 18.9 [17.8, 20.0] % ; Omega3 = 0.136 [0.086, 0.213] g/100g ; Selenium = 28.7 [15.8, 54.5] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 38.6 [12.4, 126.7] μg/100g ; Zinc = 1.5 [1.0, 2.2] mg/100g (wet weight);