Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Eupercaria/misc
(Various families in series Eupercaria) > Scaridae
(Parrotfishes) > Scarinae
Etymology: Hipposcarus: Greek, ippos = horse + Latin, scarus = a fish cited by ancient writers; 1601 (Ref. 45335). More on author: Valenciennes.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; reef-associated; depth range 2 - 40 m (Ref. 37816). Tropical; 30°N - 24°S, 95°E - 141°W
Pacific Ocean: Cocos-Keeling Islands and Rowley Shoals in the eastern Indian Ocean to the Line and Tuamoto islands, north to the Ryukyu Islands, south to the Great Barrier Reef and New Caledonia. Replaced by Hipposcarus harid in the Indian Ocean.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 60.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 9710); common length : 48.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 37816)
soft rays: 9. Small juveniles are light brownish with a broad longitudinal orange band; the primary phase is a whitish brown to light gray with a yellowish tail; the terminal phase is light blue and green (Ref. 1602, 48636). Adults best recognized by the shape of the head (Ref. 48636).
Inhabits turbid lagoons more than outer reef areas. Usually seen in aggregations; females usually in small groups (Ref. 48636). Feeds on benthic algae (Ref. 89972). Minimum depth of 2 m reported from Ref. 90102. Large adults may occur to depths of at least 40 m.
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Oviparous, distinct pairing during breeding (Ref. 205).
Randall, J.E., G.R. Allen and R.C. Steene, 1990. Fishes of the Great Barrier Reef and Coral Sea. University of Hawaii Press, Honolulu, Hawaii. 506 p. (Ref. 2334)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Threat to humans
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 24.8 - 28.9, mean 27.7 °C (based on 518 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.7500 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01259 (0.00716 - 0.02213), b=3.01 (2.86 - 3.16), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species & (Sub)family-body (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 2.0 ±0.1 se; based on diet studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (K=0.5).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low to moderate vulnerability (27 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 40.8 [22.6, 79.8] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.795 [0.462, 1.255] mg/100g ; Protein = 19 [17, 21] % ; Omega3 = 0.0985 [, ] g/100g ; Selenium = 48.7 [25.1, 94.6] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 13.7 [4.3, 44.8] μg/100g ; Zinc = 1.42 [0.94, 2.24] mg/100g (wet weight);