Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Eupercaria/misc
(Various families in series Eupercaria) > Sparidae
Etymology: Spondyliosoma: Greek, spondylos = vertebra (1667) + Greek, soma = body (Ref. 45335). More on author: Valenciennes.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; brackish; demersal; depth range - 60 m (Ref. 4332), usually - m (Ref. ). Subtropical; 0°C - ; 10°S - 35°S, 17°E - 52°E
Western Indian Ocean: South Africa and southern Madagascar.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 45.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 3198); common length : 25.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 3507)
Found over rocky substrates of oceanic waters. Enters estuaries where it lives among the weeds. Feeds on algae and small crustaceans (Ref. 5213).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Eggs are laid in a shallow depression and guarded by the male until they hatch.
Smith, J.L.B. and M.M. Smith, 1986. Sparidae. p. 580-594. In M.M. Smith and P.C. Heemstra (eds.) Smiths' sea fishes. Springer-Verlag, Berlin. (Ref. 3198)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 124695)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: commercial; bait: usually
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 18 - 27.5, mean 26 °C (based on 74 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.7500 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01288 (0.00620 - 0.02676), b=3.03 (2.87 - 3.19), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 2.8 ±0.34 se; based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate to high vulnerability (50 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 93.2 [45.4, 198.5] mg/100g ; Iron = 1.5 [0.9, 2.8] mg/100g ; Protein = 18.1 [16.2, 20.1] % ; Omega3 = 0.709 [0.359, 1.435] g/100g ; Selenium = 29.5 [12.4, 61.2] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 11.5 [3.2, 39.8] μg/100g ; Zinc = 1.12 [0.69, 1.75] mg/100g (wet weight);