Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Eupercaria/misc
(Various families in series Eupercaria) > Sparidae
Etymology: Chrysoblephus: Greek, chrysos = golden + Greek, blepo, blepharizo = to watch (Ref. 45335). More on authors: Gilchrist & Thompson.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; reef-associated; depth range 20 - 100 m. Subtropical; 17°S - 34°S
Western Indian Ocean: Mozambique south to Algoa Bay, South Africa.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 100.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 3198); common length : 40.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 3507); max. published weight: 6.6 kg (Ref. 3670)
Found offshore. May occur singly or in small groups. Feeds on crabs, hermit crabs, shrimps, bivalve mollusks, squid and sometimes other small fish (Ref. 3670). Spawns in the summer (Ref. 3198). Good food fish (Ref. 3198). Sold fresh and whole in markets.
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Smith, J.L.B. and M.M. Smith, 1986. Sparidae. p. 580-594. In M.M. Smith and P.C. Heemstra (eds.) Smiths' sea fishes. Springer-Verlag, Berlin. (Ref. 3198)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Threat to humans
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 17.7 - 25.4, mean 23.8 °C (based on 14 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5156 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.02692 (0.01444 - 0.05017), b=2.97 (2.81 - 3.13), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species & Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.4 ±0.45 se; based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Very Low, minimum population doubling time more than 14 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): High to very high vulnerability (68 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 14.2 [7.1, 28.2] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.55 [0.30, 1.08] mg/100g ; Protein = 20.2 [19.0, 21.5] % ; Omega3 = 0.172 [0.096, 0.321] g/100g ; Selenium = 16.7 [7.9, 36.7] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 28.9 [6.7, 115.2] μg/100g ; Zinc = 0.608 [0.345, 1.029] mg/100g (wet weight);