Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; benthopelagic. Subtropical
Western Indian Ocean: Transkei, South Africa to Madagascar but reported as far south as Still Bay (west of Mossel Bay), South Africa.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 35.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 5213); common length : 20.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 6082); max. published weight: 1.7 kg (Ref. 4370)
Found in coastal waters and rivers. Feeds on mollusks and crustaceans (Ref. 5213). Flesh of excellent quality (Ref. 6082).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
van der Elst, R., 1981. A guide to the common sea fishes of southern Africa. C. Struik, Cape Town. 367 p. (Ref. 3670)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 125652)
Threat to humans
Aquaculture: commercial; gamefish: yes
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 19 - 26.3, mean 24.9 °C (based on 30 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 1.0000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01660 (0.00673 - 0.04093), b=3.01 (2.79 - 3.23), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for species & Subfamily-BS (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.6 ±0.50 se; based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (25 of 100) .
Climate Vulnerability (Ref. 125649
): (0 of 100) .