Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; demersal; depth range ? - 100 m (Ref. 5578). Subtropical; - 32°S
Western Indian Ocean: southern Mozambique to off central Transkei, South Africa (Ref. 5578, 11228).
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 120 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 5578)
Morphology | Morphometrics
A guitarfish with a broad, wedge-shaped snout and pectoral disc (Ref. 5578). Brown above, with large blue-grey spots on back and pectoral fins and symmetrical blue-grey bands on snout; few dark brown spots on back; white below (Ref. 5578).
Found inshore from the surf line to a depth of 100 m (Ref. 5578, 11228). Common length 92-96 cm TL; males and females mature at about 56 cm TL and birth size ca. 25 cm TL (Ref. 114953). Feeds on bivalves, gastropods, shrimps, crabs and small bony fishes (Ref. 5578). Ovoviviparous (Ref. 50449). Flesh esteemed (Ref. 3919).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Exhibit ovoviparity (aplacental viviparity), with embryos feeding initially on yolk, then receiving additional nourishment from the mother by indirect absorption of uterine fluid enriched with mucus, fat or protein through specialised structures (Ref. 50449). Bears 2 to 4 young (Ref. 5578).
van der Elst, R., 1981. A guide to the common sea fishes of southern Africa. C. Struik, Cape Town. 367 p. (Ref. 3670)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: subsistence fisheries; gamefish: yes
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5039 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00316 (0.00174 - 0.00574), b=3.10 (2.94 - 3.26), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species & (Sub)family-body (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.7 ±0.60 se; based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Very Low, minimum population doubling time more than 14 years (Fec=2).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): High vulnerability (61 of 100) .